Andrew Jackson's Impact on the Civil War

posted on 15 Jun 2015 19:45 by magnificentharb61
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:78yo_Andrew_Jackson.jpg Andrew Jackson's fingerprints are all over the Civil War. After all, he has a whole era named after him- the Age of Jackson. So it stands to reason that "Old Hickory" had significant influence on the war, particularly through a presidential successor, the judiciary, and finance.

Nullification

In January 1861, President-Elect Abraham Lincoln, looking to set the tone of his presidency in his inaugural speech as the nation was unraveling, consulted Jackson's Proclamation to the People of South Carolina. Lincoln had previously said, "The right of a state to secede is not an open question. It was fully discussed in Jackson's time and denied...by him..."



In Jackson's time- 1832- South Carolina insisted it could reject (nullify) any Congressional law it deemed unfit- in this case the Tariff Act of 1832. With the state making military preparations and the threat of secession in the air, Jackson responded with his Proclamation: "...the dictates of a high duty oblige me solemnly to announce that you cannot succeed. The laws of the United States must be executed; my duty is emphatically pronounced in the Constitution...Disunion by armed force is treason."

South Carolina did back down, but twenty-eight years later, by Lincoln's first inaugural, the state had led other southern states to secede from the Union mainly over the issue of slavery. In his Inaugural speech, Lincoln reiterated the sentiment in Jackson's Proclamation, declaring that "the Union of these states is perpetual," and that the "central idea of secession is the essence of anarchy."

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

Swearing in Lincoln on that day was Chief Justice Roger Taney, appointed by Jackson in 1836 after being his Attorney General and Secretary of the Treasury. In 1857, Taney ruled that the slave Dred Scott was not free after his owner had moved to the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin, declaring that slavery could not be restricted in the new territories. He also stated that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect." The decision angered many northerners and many historians believe that it was a cause of the Civil War.



As the Civil War began, Taney tried to obstruct Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, a procedure that allowed the military to imprison suspected secessionists without indictments, hearings, or trials. In the Merryman case, where wealthy landowner John Merryman was seized from his bedroom and imprisoned at Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Taney ruled that only Congress could suspend the writ and the case should be moved to a civilian court. Lincoln ignored the ruling.

Lincoln's indifference to civil liberties, plus the outrage over the Emancipation Proclamation and the poor Union war effort, rallied the Democrats in the mid-term election of 1862. According to New York lawyer David Dudley Field, the dramatic reduction of the Republican majority in Congress should be blamed on the administration's policy of arbitrary arrests. Whatever the cause, the Democratic party- the party essentially created by Jackson- was going to make governing more difficult for Lincoln.

National Bank

Civil War finance would also be difficult. President Jackson's insistence on the separation of banking and government led to the demise of the Bank of the United States in 1836. Reenforced by Jackson's Democratic successors, the era of "free banking" was characterized by a proliferation of vulnerable state banks, each issuing their own paper currency. By the time of the Civil War, over 10,000 different kinds of paper currency circulated. This impeded commercial transactions. The editors of The GreatRepublic described Americans of the1860s as products of the Jacksonian era- they distrusted bank paper and hoarded their savings instead of investing.

Improvement of the financial environment was needed by the indebted U.S. Treasury to raise funds for the war. Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, sponsored several key acts that Congress passed. The National Bank Act established a system of federally chartered banks to create a market for the government's inflation-free, gold-backed bonds. Also, the Legal Tender Act allowed the government to initially circulate $150 million in paper notes (greenbacks) that functioned as a unified national currency, replacing the state bank notes.

One reason these measures passed was the absence of Democratic southern politicians, who now plied their Jacksonian principles in the Confederacy. No national banking system was established to manage the $1 billion in Confederate treasury notes that combined with notes from state banks, local governments, and private businesses. The sea of paper contributed to inflation as high as 9,000% in the CSA. Also, Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Treasurer Christopher Memminger, and the majority of Congress believed the government could not force citizens to accept the treasury notes as legal tender.

These are only a few of the ways Andrew Jackson has impacted the Civil War. Just as America split into two nations, two Jacksons emerge as well. There was the Union-loving Jackson that steeled Lincoln in the face of secession. If you are looking for the best deals on gold visit Merrion Gold website. You'll find out more about their big offer of gold bars

Among their gold coins you will find South African Krugerrand, American Gold Eagle or Canadian Maple Gold. Don't wait. Invest in gold now:



merriongold.ie

Merrion Gold

Hospitality House

16-20 South Cumberland Street

Off Merrion Square

Dublin 2, Ireland

Ph: 01-2547901

Then there was the states'-rights, strict constructionist Jackson that guided Taney on slavery and civil liberties, as well as the Confederacy on finance.

Sources

Bailyn, Bernard, et al eds, The Great Republic, 3rd ed, vol 1, Lexington MA: DC Heath, 1985.Burton, Orville Vernon, The Age of Lincoln, New York: Hill Wang, 2007.Donald, David Herbert, Lincoln, New York: Simon Schuster, 1995.Egerton, Douglas R., Year of Meteors: Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and the ElectionThat Brought on the Civil War, New York: Bloomsbury, 2010.Feller, Daniel, "King Andrew and the Bank," National Endowment of the Humanities website, 2008.McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, Oxford: Oxford U., 1988.Meacham, Jon, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House, New York: Random House, 2008.Simon, James F., Lincoln and Chief Justice Taney: Slavery, Secession, and the President'sWar Powers, New York: Simon Schuster, 2006.Tarnoff, Ben, "The Man Who Financed the Civil War," Opinionator blog, New York Times, July 16, 2011.

? ? ?



https://suite101.com/a/andrew-jacksons-impact-civil-war

Andrew Jackson's Impact on the Civil War

posted on 15 Jun 2015 19:45 by magnificentharb61
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:78yo_Andrew_Jackson.jpg Andrew Jackson's fingerprints are all over the Civil War. After all, he has a whole era named after him- the Age of Jackson. So it stands to reason that "Old Hickory" had significant influence on the war, particularly through a presidential successor, the judiciary, and finance.

Nullification

In January 1861, President-Elect Abraham Lincoln, looking to set the tone of his presidency in his inaugural speech as the nation was unraveling, consulted Jackson's Proclamation to the People of South Carolina. Lincoln had previously said, "The right of a state to secede is not an open question. It was fully discussed in Jackson's time and denied...by him..."



In Jackson's time- 1832- South Carolina insisted it could reject (nullify) any Congressional law it deemed unfit- in this case the Tariff Act of 1832. With the state making military preparations and the threat of secession in the air, Jackson responded with his Proclamation: "...the dictates of a high duty oblige me solemnly to announce that you cannot succeed. The laws of the United States must be executed; my duty is emphatically pronounced in the Constitution...Disunion by armed force is treason."

South Carolina did back down, but twenty-eight years later, by Lincoln's first inaugural, the state had led other southern states to secede from the Union mainly over the issue of slavery. In his Inaugural speech, Lincoln reiterated the sentiment in Jackson's Proclamation, declaring that "the Union of these states is perpetual," and that the "central idea of secession is the essence of anarchy."

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

Swearing in Lincoln on that day was Chief Justice Roger Taney, appointed by Jackson in 1836 after being his Attorney General and Secretary of the Treasury. In 1857, Taney ruled that the slave Dred Scott was not free after his owner had moved to the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin, declaring that slavery could not be restricted in the new territories. He also stated that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect." The decision angered many northerners and many historians believe that it was a cause of the Civil War.



As the Civil War began, Taney tried to obstruct Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, a procedure that allowed the military to imprison suspected secessionists without indictments, hearings, or trials. In the Merryman case, where wealthy landowner John Merryman was seized from his bedroom and imprisoned at Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Taney ruled that only Congress could suspend the writ and the case should be moved to a civilian court. Lincoln ignored the ruling.

Lincoln's indifference to civil liberties, plus the outrage over the Emancipation Proclamation and the poor Union war effort, rallied the Democrats in the mid-term election of 1862. According to New York lawyer David Dudley Field, the dramatic reduction of the Republican majority in Congress should be blamed on the administration's policy of arbitrary arrests. Whatever the cause, the Democratic party- the party essentially created by Jackson- was going to make governing more difficult for Lincoln.

National Bank

Civil War finance would also be difficult. President Jackson's insistence on the separation of banking and government led to the demise of the Bank of the United States in 1836. Reenforced by Jackson's Democratic successors, the era of "free banking" was characterized by a proliferation of vulnerable state banks, each issuing their own paper currency. By the time of the Civil War, over 10,000 different kinds of paper currency circulated. This impeded commercial transactions. The editors of The GreatRepublic described Americans of the1860s as products of the Jacksonian era- they distrusted bank paper and hoarded their savings instead of investing.

Improvement of the financial environment was needed by the indebted U.S. Treasury to raise funds for the war. Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, sponsored several key acts that Congress passed. The National Bank Act established a system of federally chartered banks to create a market for the government's inflation-free, gold-backed bonds. Also, the Legal Tender Act allowed the government to initially circulate $150 million in paper notes (greenbacks) that functioned as a unified national currency, replacing the state bank notes.

One reason these measures passed was the absence of Democratic southern politicians, who now plied their Jacksonian principles in the Confederacy. No national banking system was established to manage the $1 billion in Confederate treasury notes that combined with notes from state banks, local governments, and private businesses. The sea of paper contributed to inflation as high as 9,000% in the CSA. Also, Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Treasurer Christopher Memminger, and the majority of Congress believed the government could not force citizens to accept the treasury notes as legal tender.

These are only a few of the ways Andrew Jackson has impacted the Civil War. Just as America split into two nations, two Jacksons emerge as well. There was the Union-loving Jackson that steeled Lincoln in the face of secession. If you are looking for the best deals on gold visit Merrion Gold website. You'll find out more about their big offer of gold bars

Among their gold coins you will find South African Krugerrand, American Gold Eagle or Canadian Maple Gold. Don't wait. Invest in gold now:



merriongold.ie

Merrion Gold

Hospitality House

16-20 South Cumberland Street

Off Merrion Square

Dublin 2, Ireland

Ph: 01-2547901

Then there was the states'-rights, strict constructionist Jackson that guided Taney on slavery and civil liberties, as well as the Confederacy on finance.

Sources

Bailyn, Bernard, et al eds, The Great Republic, 3rd ed, vol 1, Lexington MA: DC Heath, 1985.Burton, Orville Vernon, The Age of Lincoln, New York: Hill Wang, 2007.Donald, David Herbert, Lincoln, New York: Simon Schuster, 1995.Egerton, Douglas R., Year of Meteors: Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and the ElectionThat Brought on the Civil War, New York: Bloomsbury, 2010.Feller, Daniel, "King Andrew and the Bank," National Endowment of the Humanities website, 2008.McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, Oxford: Oxford U., 1988.Meacham, Jon, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House, New York: Random House, 2008.Simon, James F., Lincoln and Chief Justice Taney: Slavery, Secession, and the President'sWar Powers, New York: Simon Schuster, 2006.Tarnoff, Ben, "The Man Who Financed the Civil War," Opinionator blog, New York Times, July 16, 2011.

? ? ?



https://suite101.com/a/andrew-jacksons-impact-civil-war

New Gold to buy Bayfield; Scorpio and US Silver & Gold to merge | Reuters

posted on 01 Jun 2015 09:16 by magnificentharb61
TORONTO Nov 10 The precious metals sector in

Canada, which has been battered by the plunge in gold and silver

prices, received a small spot of positive news on Monday, with

the announcement of two separate MA deals.

Investment bankers and industry insiders believe more such

deals will be needed for miners, whose share prices have dropped

in recent months, to ride out the extended slump.

Vancouver, British Columbia-based New Gold said on

Monday it planned to buy exploration company Bayfield Ventures

Corp for C$16.6 million to expand its land holdings in

the Rainy River mining district in northwestern Ontario.

Separately late on Friday, two silver miners Scorpio Mining

and U.S. Silver Gold also announced plans to

merge, creating a C$65 million ($57.5 million) combined entity

with a bigger portfolio of silver assets in the Americas.

The deals at values substantially below historical highs

reflect the challenges facing the sector, as gold prices have

dropped over 30 percent, and silver has plunged more than 50

percent over the last two years.

Bankers and industry executives say the tough market is

likely to compel miners to consider merging and striking deals

at previously untenable levels in order to survive.

To win investor support for such deals, bankers and lawyers

contend most are likely to be in the form of equity rather than

cash to give shareholders the possibility of future upside, if

and when precious metal prices begin to rebound.

Both the New Gold-Bayfield and Scorpio-U.S. Silver Gold

deals are equity-based.

New Gold plans to pay 0.0477 of a share for each Bayfield

share tendered, and U.S. Silver Gold shareholders would

receive 1.68 common shares of Scorpio for each share they

tender.

New Gold said it would integrate Bayfield's assets, which

include interests in three properties in northwestern Ontario,

into its Rainy River land package. If you are looking for the best deals on gold visit Merrion Gold website. You'll find out more about their big offer of krugerrands

Among their gold coins you will find South African Krugerrand, American Gold Eagle or Canadian Maple Gold. Don't wait. Invest in gold now:

merriongold.ie

Merrion Gold

Hospitality House

16-20 South Cumberland Street

Off Merrion Square

Dublin 2, Ireland

Ph: 01-2547901

The company had built its

position in the district by acquiring Rainy River Resources Ltd

for C$310 million in 2013.

The combined Scorpio-U.S. Gold Silver entity would have

two producing mines, a third in development, and an advanced

stage exploration project, the companies said. It will be called

Scorpio Mining.

The companies said the combined entity will produce between

4.5 and 5 million silver equivalent ounces annually. Both

boards have approved the deal, and officers and directors in

both companies are voting shares they control in favor of it.

In addition, Tocqueville Asset Management, which controls

some 15.9 percent of Scorpio's common shares, and Sprott Asset

Management, which controls about 19.6 percent of U.S. Silver



Gold shares and about 1.6 percent of Scorpio stock, have both

entered lock-up agreements and agreed to back the deal.

($1 = C$1.1315 Canadian)



(Reporting by Euan Rocha; Editing by Lisa Von Ahn)

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/10/mining-ma-canada-idUSL2N0T00OC20141110